DPLM Faculty Profiles — Dr. Bishop-Freeman

Dr. Bishop-Freeman

Sandra C. Bishop–Freeman, PhD, F-ABFT

Deputy Chief Toxicologist,
N. C. Office of the Chief Medical Examiner 

Office: 919-743-9011

E-mail: sandra.bishop@dhhs.nc.gov

Research Interests

Forensic Toxicology is a multifaceted discipline that bridges the gap between the scientific and legal aspects of analytical drug chemistry and pharmacology. My interests include topics from both human performance and postmortem toxicology; specifically, examining the impairing effects of drugs and alcohol on driving as well as exploring analytical issues surrounding drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA). Recently, I have been compiling data comparing incidental postmortem concentrations to lethal concentrations. This provides interpretation guidance to toxicologists and pathologists when rendering an opinion regarding the contributions of drugs to a death.

Selected Publications

Bishop-Freeman, S.C.; Feaster, M.S.; Miller, A.; Beal, J.L.; Hargrove, R.; Brower, J.O.; Winecker, R.E. Loperamide-Related Deaths in North Carolina. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 40, 8 (2016) 677-686.

Bishop-Freeman, S.C.; Miller, A.; Hensel, E.M.; Winecker, R.E. Postmortem Metaxalone (Skelaxin®) Data from North Carolina. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 39 (2015) 629–636.

Bishop-Freeman, S.C.; Kornegay, N.C.; Winecker, R.E. Postmortem Levetiracetam (Keppra®) Data from North Carolina. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 36 (2012) 422–428.

Bishop, S.C; Johnson, G.; Smith, L.; Fiorentino, D.  Manual versus automatic sampling variations of a Preliminary Alcohol Screening device (PAS), Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 33, 8 (2009) 521–524.

Bishop, S.C.; Lerch, M.; McCord, B.  Detection of nitrated benzodiazepines by indirect laser-induced fluorescence detection on a microfluidics device, J Chromatogr. A, 1154, 1-2 (2007) 481–484.

Bishop, S.C.; McCord, B.; Gratz, S.; Loelger, J.; Witkowski, M. Simultaneous detection of piperazine and amphetamine-like designer drugs using cyclodextrin mediated capillary electrophoresis, Journal of Forensic Sciences, 50, 2 (2005) 326–335.

Bishop, S.C.; Lerch, M.; McCord, B. Micellar electrokinetic screening method for common sexual assault drugs in beverages, Forensic Science International, 141 (2004) 7–15.