|Figure 8||Figure 7||Figure 6||Figure 5||Figure 4||Figure 3||Figure 2||Figure 1|
Figure 7. Scanning electron micrograph of a corrosion cast of a 25 micron
diameter collateral (tortuous vessel in the center) cross-connecting a distal
arteriole (out of view) of the middle and anterior cerebral artery trees of a
C57Bl/6J three-month-old mouse. Also evident are arterioles branching off
of the collateral and penetrating into what was the cerebral cortex before
removal by corrosion. Casts- of endothelial cell nuclei can also be seen.
Figure 6. Pial circulation of wild type C57Bl/6 mice (left panel) and PCAF-/-
mice (right panel) showing the collateral arteries between anterior, middle
and posterior cerebral arteries which are 10% reduced in the PCAF-/- mice.
(See pages 1902–1910.)
|Figure 3. Collaterals interconnecting distal branches of the anterior cerebral artery emanating from the mid-saggital sulcus (right) and middle cerebral artery (left) trees reside in the pia of the cerebral cortex (C57BL/6 mouse). Penetrating arterioles descending into the cortex (un-focused) are “end-arteries” that do not interconnect the two pial arterial trees. The vasculature was cleared, dilated, fixed, filled with MicrofilR, horizontally sectioned at ~1 mm, optically cleared and viewed in intermediate brightfield-darkfield. Circ Res. 2009 Jul 2;105(1):9-11.|
|Figure 2. Chalothorn D, Clayton JA, Zhang H, Pomp D, Faber JE. (2007) Collateral density, remodeling and VEGF expression differ widely between mouse strains. . Cover article|
Figure 1. Non-invasive scanning infrared laser Doppler perfusion images of the hind limb ventral surface from the same mouse obtained before and at 3 and 21 days after femoral artery ligation (center three figures, left-to-right, respectively). Note the appearance of collaterals between the genu artery and branches of the distal saphenous artery and between the lateral caudal femoral artery and the saphenous artery. Relative flow velocity indicated by 16-hue pseudocolor, where gray and white represent zero and maximal flux [range of perfusion units (PU) = 0-5000]. Panels in upper right and lower left are the post-mortem angiogram and color photomicrograph of the medial adductor region from a mouse (different from the mouse in the Doppler-images) 21 days after ligation and following maximal dilation and filling of the arterial circulation with barium sulfate. The tortuous arcading deep perforating collateral artery connecting the profundus and popliteal arteries in the adductor region can be seen in the angiogram, whereas the superficial collaterals connecting the lateral caudal and saphenous arteries can be seen in both angiogram and color micrograph.
From Chalothorn D, Zhang H, Clayton JA, Thomas SA, Faber JE. (2005) "Catecholamines augment collateral vessel growth and angiogenesis in hind limb ischemia." Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 289: H947-H9596.