Stephen Royal, MD

Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Cardiology

Specialty Areas: Cardiac catheterization; clinical cardiology.

Chronology: MD: St. George’s School University School of Medicine; Resident: East Tennessee State University, Internal Medicine; Chief Resident: East Tennessee State University, Internal Medicine; Fellow: State University of New York, Cardiology; Fellow: University of Pittsburgh, Cardiology; Fellow: University of Tennessee/Methodist University Hospital, Interventional Cardiology; Board Certified, Internal Medicine, Cardiovascular Disease.

Dr. Royal’s clinical focus is the detection and treatment of heart conditions in adult and older teenage patients, with particular attention to preventive cardiology. His procedural expertise includes cardiac catheterization, ambulatory monitoring, and pacemaker care. Dr. Royal’s research interest include coronary artery disease and valvular heart disease.

Selected Bibliography:

Valve replacement for appetite suppressant-induced valvular heart disease. Biswas SS, Donovan CL, Forbess JM, Royal SH, Landolfo KP. Ann Thorac Surg. 1999 Jun;67(6):1819-22.

Disposition of oral dipyridamole in patients undergoing thallium 201 myocardial imaging. Stringer KA, Branconi JM, Abadier R, Wilton JH, Royal SH. Pharmacotherapy. 1992;12(2):83-7.

Verapamil preceded by calcium in supraventricular tachycardia. Stringer KA, Hicks P, Royal SH, Branconi JM, Sloan R. Drug Intell Clin Pharm. 1988 Jul-Aug;22(7-8):575-6.