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Bonnard A, Auber F, Fourcade L, Marchac V, Emond S, Revillon Y. Vascular ring abnormalities: a retrospective study of 62 cases. J Pediatr Surg 2003;38(4):539-43.

Boston M, Rutter MJ. Current airway management in craniofacial anomalies. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2003;11(6):428-32.

Cohen S, Avital A, Godfrey S. Suspected foreign body inhalation in children: what are indications for bronchoscopy? J Peds 2009; 155:276-80

Daniel SJ. The upper airway: congenital malformations. Paed Resp Rev 2006; 7S:S260-63

Duynstee MLG, dEKrijger RR, Verwoerd CDA, Verwoerd-Verhoef HL. Subglottic stenosis afer endolaryngeal intubation in infants and children: result of wound healing processes. Ped Otorhinolaryngology 2002; 62:1-9

Kovesi T, Rubin S: Long-term complications of congenital esophageal atresia and/or tracheoesophageal fistula. Chest 2004;126:915-925

Kussman BD, Geva T, McGowan FX. Cardiovascular causes of airway compression. Paediatr Anaesth 2004;14(1):60-74.

Lee SL, Cheung YF, Leung MP et al. Airway obstruction in children with congenital heart disease: assessment by flexible bronchoscopy. Pediatr Pulmonol 2002; 34(4):304-11

Miyamoto RC, Parikh SR, Gellad W, Licameli GR. Bilateral congenital vocal cord paralysis: a 16-year institutional review. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2005;133(2):241-5.

Morris MJ, Christopher KL. Diagnostic criteria for the classification of vocal cord dysfunction. Chest 2010; 138(5):1213-23

Muhlebach MS, Wooten W, Muenzer J. Respiratory manifestations in mucopolysaccharidoses. Paediatr Respir Rev. 2011; 12(2):133-8

Parikh SR. Pediatric unilateral vocal fold immobility. Oto Clin North Am 2004; 37(1):203-15.

Rutter MJ. Evaluation and management of upper airway disorders in children. Semin Pediatr Surg 2006;15(2):116-23.

Wood RE. Evaluation of the upper airway in children. Curr Opin Peds 2008; 20:266-71

Zacharisen MC, Conley SF. Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis in children: masquerader of common respiratory diseases. Pediatrics 2006;118(5):1925-31.


Bacharier LB, Phillips BR, Zeiger RS, et al. Episodic use of an inhaled corticosteroid or leukotriene receptor antagonist in preschool children with moderate-to-severe intermittent wheezing. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008

Carr WW. Pediatric allergic rhinitis: current and future state of the art. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2008 Jan-Feb;29(1):14-23.

Coffman JM, Cabana MD, Halpin HA, Yelin EH. Effects of asthma education on children’s use of acute care services: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2008 Mar;121(3):575-86.

Covar RA, Szefler SJ, Zeiger RS, et al. Childhood Asthma Research and Education Network. Factors associated with asthma exacerbations during a long-term clinical trial of controller medications in children. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008 Oct;122(4):741-747.

Expert Panel Report 3, National Asthma Education and Prevention Program, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute: Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma. National Institutes of Health Publication No. 07-4051, 2007.

Frank PI, Morris JA, Hazell ML, Linehan MF, Frank TL. Long term prognosis in preschool children with wheeze: longitudinal postal questionnaire study 1993-2004. BMJ. 2008 Jun 21;336(7658):1423-6.

Guo JJ, Tsai K, Kelton CM, et al. Risk of serious asthma exacerbations associated with long-acting beta agonists among patients with asthma: a retrospective cohort study. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2011;106:214-222.e2.

Guilbert TW, Morgan WJ, Zeiger RS, et al. Long-term inhaled corticosteroids in preschool children at high risk for asthma. N Engl J Med. 2006 May 11;354(19):1985-97.

Joos S, Miksch A, Szecsenyi J, et al.Montelukast as add-on therapy to inhaled corticosteroids in the treatment of mild to moderate asthma: a systematic review. Thorax. 2008 May;63(5):453-62.

Kaditis AG, Winnie G, Syrogiannopoulos GA. Anti-inflammatory pharmacotherapy for wheezing in preschool children. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2007 May;42(5):407-20.

Kelly HW, Van Natta ML, Covar RA, et al. Effect of long-term corticosteroid use on bone mineral density in children: a prospective longitudinal assessment in the childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP) study. Pediatrics. 2008 Jul;122(1):e53

Morgan WJ, Stern DA, Sherrill DL, Guerra S, Holberg CJ, Guilbert TW, Taussig LM, Wright AL, Martinez FD. Outcome of asthma and wheezing in the first 6 years of life: follow-up through adolescence. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005;172(10):1253-8.

Rachelefsky G. Treating exacerbations of asthma in children: the role of systemic corticosteroids. Pediatrics. 2003 Aug;112(2):382-97.

Rance KR, O’Laughlen M. Obesity and asthma: a dangerous link in children. An integrative review of the literature. Journal for Nurse Practitioners. 2011;7(4):287-292
Rhee H, Belyea MJ, Halterman JS. Adolescents’ perception of asthma symptoms and health care utilization. J Pediatr Health Care. 2011;25(2):105-113.

Rinses KR, Belanger K, Murk W, Bracken MB. Antibiotic exposure by 6 months and asthma and allergy at 6 years. American Journal of Epidemiology. 2011;173(3):310-318.

Salpeter SR, Buckley NS, Ormiston TM, Salpeter EE. Meta-analysis: effect of long-acting beta-agonists on severe asthma exacerbations and asthma-related deaths. Ann Intern Med. 2006 Jun 20;144(12):904-12. Epub 2006 Jun 5.

Sorkness CA, Lemanske RF Jr, Mauger DT, et al. Long-term comparison of 3 controller regimens for mild-moderate persistent childhood asthma: the Pediatric Asthma Controller Trial. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007 Jan;119(1):64-72.

Stern DA, Morgan WJ, Halonen M, Wright AL, Martinez FD. Wheezing and bronchial hyper-responsiveness in early childhood as predictors of newly diagnosed asthma in early adulthood: a longitudinal birth-cohort study. Lancet. 2008 Sep 20;372(9643):1058-64.

Wahn U, Dass SB. Review of recent results of montelukast use as a monotherapy in children with mild asthma. Clin Ther. 2008;30 Spec No:1026-35.

Weinberger M, Abu-Hasan M. Pseudo-asthma: when cough, wheezing, and dyspnea are not asthma. Pediatrics. 2007 Oct;120(4):855-64.

Wood RA. Pediatric asthma. JAMA. 2002 Aug 14;288(6):745-7.


American Academy of Pediatrics, Subcommittee on the Diagnosis and Management of Bronchiolitis: Diagnosis and management of bronchiolitis. Pediatrics 2006;118:1774-1793

Hampp C, KAuf TL, Saidi AS, Winterstein AL. Cost-effectiveness of RSV prophylaxis in various indications. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2011

King VJ, Viswanathan M, Bordley WC, et al: Pharmacologic treatment of bronchiolitis in infants and children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2004;158:127-137

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia/chronic lung disease

Allen J, Zwerdling R, Ehrenkranz et al for the American Thoracic Society. Statement on the Care of the Child with Chronic Lung Disease of Infancy and Childhood. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 2003; 168:356-396.

Ambalavanan N, Carlo WA. Ventilatory strategies in the prevention and management of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Semin Perinatol. 2006;30(4):192-9.

Balfour-Lynn IM, Field DJ, Gringras P et al. BTS guidelines for home oxygen in children. Thorax 2009; 64(Suppl II) ii1-ii26.

Baraldi E and Filippone M. Chronic lung disease after premature birth. NEJM. 2007; 357(19): 1946-1955.

Bass JL, Corwin M, Gozal D, et el: The effect of chronic or intermittent hypoxia on cognition in childhood: a review of the evidence. Pediatrics 2004;114:805-816

Cerny L, Torday JS, Rehan VK. Prevention and treatment of bronchopulmonary dysplasia: contemporary status and future outlook. Lung. 2008;186(2):75-89.

Chess P. Pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Sem Perinatol. 2006; 30:171-178.

Greenough A. Long-term pulmonary outcome in the preterm infant. Neonatology. 2008;93(4):324-7.

Khemani E, McElhinney DB, Rhein L, Andrade O, Lacro RV, Thomas KC, Mullen MP. Pulmonary artery hypertension in formerly premature infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia: clinical features and outcomes in the surfactant era. Pediatrics. 2007 Dec;120(6):1260-9.

Morley CJ, Davis PG, Doyle LW, Brion LP, Hascoet JM, Carlin JB; COIN Trial Investigators. Nasal CPAP or intubation at birth for very preterm infants. N Engl J Med. 2008;14;358(7):700-8.

Rossi UG, Owens CM: The radiology of chronic lung disease in children. Arch Dis Child 2005; 90:601-607

Schmidt B, Roberts R, Millar D, Kirpalani H. Evidence-based neonatal drug therapy for prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in very-low-birth-weight infants. Neonatology. 2008;93(4):284-7.

Stenmark KR, Abman SH. Lung vascular development: implications for the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Annu Rev Physiol. 2005;67:623-61.

Stocks J, Coates A, Bush A. Lung function in infants and young children with chronic lung disease of infancy: the next steps? Pediatr Pulmonol. 2007 Jan;42(1):3-9.

Vaucher Y, Bronchopulmonary dysplasia: an enduring challenge. Pediatrics in Review. 2002; 23(10):349-358.

Congenital malformations:

Andrade CF, Ferreira HP, Fischer GB. Congenital lung malformations. J Brasil Pneumol 2011; 37(2):257-71

Bellini C, Mazzella M, Arioni C. Hennekam syndrome presenting as nonimmune hydrops fetalis, congenital chylothorax, and congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasia. Am J Medical Genetics 2003; 120A:92-6.

Buttiker V, Fanconi S, Burger R. Chylothorax in children: Guidelines for diagnosis and management. Chest 1999; 116:682-87.

deSousa Coelho M, Guimares P. Pectus carinatum. J Bras Pneumol 2007;33(3):463-74.

Malek MH, Coburn JW. Strategies for cardiopulmonary exercise testing of pectus excavatum patients. Clinics 2008; 63(2):245-54.

Laberge JM, Puligandla P, Flageole H. Asymptomatic congenital lung malformations. Semin Pediatr Surg 2005; 14(1):16-33

Whitsett JA, Wert SE, Trapnell BC: Genetic disorders influencing lung formation and function at birth. Hum Mol Genet 2004 Oct 1;13 Spec No 2:R207-215


Chang AB, Glomb WB, Guidelines for evaluating chronic cough in pediatrics: ACCP evidence-based clinical practice guidelines.Chest. 2006 Jan;129(1 Suppl):260S-283S.

Chang AB, Redding GJ, Everard ML. Chronic wet cough: Protracted bronchitis, chronic suppurative lung disease and bronchiectasis. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2008; 43(6):519-31.

Irwin RS, Glomb WB, Chang AB. Habit cough, tic cough, and psychogenic cough in adult and pediatric populations: ACCP evidence-based practice guidelines. Chest. 2006 ;129):174S-179S.

Marchant JM, Masters IB, Taylor SM, Cox NC, Seymour GJ, Chang AB. Evaluation and outcome of young children with chronic cough. Chest. 2006;129(5):1132-41.

Marchant JM, Masters IB, Taylor SM, Chang AB. Utility of signs and symptoms of chronic cough in predicting specific cause in children. Thorax. 2006;61(8):694-8.

Marchant JM, Morris P, Gaffney JT, Chang AB. Antibiotics for prolonged moist cough in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005;(4):CD004822.

Smith SM, Schroeder K, Fahey T. Over-the-counter medications for acute cough in children and adults in ambulatory settings. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008;(1):CD001831.

Cystic fibrosis:

Davis PB. Cystic fibrosis. Pediatr Rev. 2001 Aug;22(8):257-64.

Farrell PM, Rosenstein BJ, White TB, et al. Guidelines for diagnosis of cystic fibrosis in newborns through older adults: CFF consensus report. J Pediatr. 2008 Aug;153(2):S4-S14.

Flume PA, Mogayzel PJ, Robinson KA et al. Cystic fibrosis pulmonary guidelines: pulmonary complications: hemoptysis and pneumothorax. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2010; 182(3):298-306

Flume PA, O’Sullivan BP, Robinson KA, et al. Cystic fibrosis pulmonary guidelines: chronic medications for maintenance of lung health. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2007;176(10):957-69.

Hardin DS. A review of the management of two common clinical problems found in patients with cystic fibrosis: cystic fibrosis-related diabetes and poor growth. Horm Res. 2007;68 S5:113-6.

Kremer TM, Zwerdling RG, Michelson PH, O’Sullivan P. Intensive care management of the patient with cystic fibrosis. J Intensive Care Med 2008;23(3):159-77

Olivier KN; NTM in CF Study Group. The natural history of nontuberculous mycobacteria in patients with cystic fibrosis. Paediatr Respir Rev. 2004;5 SuppA:S213-6

Rosenfeld M, Ramsey BW, Gibson RL. Pseudomonas acquisition in young patients with cystic fibrosis: pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2003;9(6):492-7.

Rowe SM, Miller S, Sorscher EJ: Cystic fibrosis. N Engl J Med 2005;352:1992-2001

Stallings VA, Stark LJ, Robinson KA, Feranchak AP, Quinton H; Evidence-based practice recommendations for nutrition-related management of children and adults with cystic fibrosis and pancreatic insufficiency: results of a systematic review. J Am Diet Assoc. 2008;108(5):832-9

Stevens DA, Moss RB, Kurup VP, et al. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in cystic fibrosis: CFF Consensus Conference. Clin Infect Dis. 2003 Oct 1;37 Suppl 3:S225-64.

Turcios NL. Cystic fibrosis: an overview. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2005 Apr;39(4):307-17.

Yankaskas JR, Mallory GB Jr. Lung transplantation in cystic fibrosis: consensus conference statement. Chest. 1998 Jan;113(1):217-26.

Gastroesophageal reflux:

Euler AR. Upper respiratory tract complications of gastroesophageal reflux in adult and pediatric-age patients. Dig Dis 1998;16(2):111-7.

Khoshoo V, Haydel R, Saturno E. Gastroesophageal reflux disease and asthma in children. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2006 Jun;8(3):237-43.

Orenstein SR. An overview of reflux-associated disorders in infants: apnea, laryngospasm, and aspiration. Am J Med 2001;111 Suppl 8A:60S-3S.

Slocum C, Hibbs AM, Martin RJ, Orenstein SR. Infant apnea and gastroesophageal reflux: a critical review and framework for further investigation. Curr Gastro Rep. 2007;9(3):219-24.

Sontag SJ. The spectrum of pulmonary symptoms due to gastroesophageal reflux.
Thorac Surg Clin. 2005 Aug;15(3):353-68.

Yellon RF, Goldberg H. Update on gastroesophageal reflux disease in pediatric airway disorders. Am J Med 2001;111 Suppl 8A:78S-84S.

Hemoptysis/pulmonary hemorrhage:

Boyer D, Westra SJ, Kinane B, Stone JR. Case 3-2007: A 3 year-old boy with recurrent episodes of respiratory insufficiency. NEJM 2007; 356:398-407

Gaude GS. Hemoptysis in children. Indian Pediatrics 2010; 47(3):245-54

Godfrey S. Pulmonary hemorrhage/hemoptysis in children. Pediatr Pulmonol 2004;37:476-484

Sim J, Kim H, Lee H et al. Etiology of hemoptysis in children: a single institutional series of 40 cases. Allergy Asthma Immunol Res 2009; 1(1):41-4

Interstitial lung disease:

Das S, Langston C, Fan LL. Interstitial lung disease in children. Curr Opin Pediatr 2011; 23(3):325-31

Esther CR, Barker PM. Pulmonary lymphangiectasia: Diagnosis and clinical course. Pediatric Pulmonology 2004; 38:308-13.

Fan LL, Deterding RR, Langston C: Pediatric interstitial lung disease revisited. Pediatr Pulmonol 2004;38:369-378

Nogee LM. Genetic mechanisms of surfactant deficiency. Biol Neonate 2004;85:314-318

Trapnell BC, WHitsett JA, Nakata K. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. NEJM 2003; 349:2527-39.

Neuromuscular/respiratory insufficiency

Boitano LJ. Equipment options for cough augmentation, ventilation and noninvasive interfaces in neuromuscular respiratory management. Pediatrics 2009; 123:S226-30

Finder JD, Birnkrant D, Carl J, et al, for the American Thoracic Society: Respiratory care of the patient with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. ATS Consensus Statement. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2004;170:456-465

Katz SL. Assessement of sleep-disordered breathing in pediatric neuromuscular diseases. Pediatrics 2009; 123:S222-25

Panitch HB. The pathophysiology of respiratory impairment in pediatric neuromuscular diseases. Pediatrics 2009; 123:S215-18

Sharma GD. Pulmonary function testing in neuromuscular disorders. Pediatrics 2009;123:219-21

Schroth MK. Special considerations in respiratory management of SMA. Pediatrics 2009; 123:S245-9

Pneumonia and pleural diseases:

Balfour-Lynn IM, Abrahamson E, Cohen J, et al. BTS guidelines for the management of pleural infection in children. Thorax 2005;60(suppl I):i1-i21

Boesch RP, Daines C, Willging JP, Kaul A, Cohen AP, Wood RE, Amin RS. Advances in the diagnosis and management of chronic pulmonary aspiration in children. Eur Respir J. 2006; 28(4):847-61

Chetty K, Thomson AH. Management of community-acquired pneumonia in children. Paediatr Drugs. 2007;9(6):401-11

Durbin WJ, Stille C. Pneumonia. Pediatr Rev. 2008;29(5):147-58

Eastham KM, Hammal DM, Parker L, Spencer DA. A follow-up study of children hospitalised with community-acquired pneumonia. Arch Dis Child. 2008;93(9):755-9

Fuller MK, Helmrath MA. Thoracic empyema, application of video-assisted thoracic surgery and its current management. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2007; 19(3):328-32.

Jaffe A, Calder AD, Owens CM, Stanojevic S, Sonnappa S. Role of routine computed tomography in paediatric pleural empyema. Thorax. 2008;63(10):897-902.

McBride SC. Management of parapneumonic effusions in pediatrics: current practice. J Hosp Med. 2008 May;3(3):263-70.

McIntosh K. Community-acquired pneumonia in children. N Engl J Med. 2002;7;346(6):429-37.

Nissen MD. Congenital and neonatal pneumonia. Paediatr Respir Rev. 2007 Sep; 8(3):195-203.

Sandora TJ, Harper MB. Pneumonia in hospitalized children. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2005; 52(4):1059-81, viii.

Vaughan D, Katkin JP. Chronic and recurrent pneumonias in children. Semin Respir Infect. 2002 Mar;17(1):72-84.

Weiss AK et al. Adjunct corticosteroids in children hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia. Pediatrics. 2011;127:e255-263

Williams DJ, Hall M, Brogan TV et al. Influenza coinfection and outcomes in children with complicated pneumonia. Arch Pediatr ADolesc Med 2011

Pulmonary function testing:

Aurora P, Stocks J, Oliver C, et al, on behalf of the London Cystic Fibrosis Collaboration: Quality control for spirometry in preschool children with and without lung disease. Am J. Respir Crit Care Med 2004;169:1152-1159

Beydon N, Davis SD, Lombardi E, et al. for the ATS/ERS Working Group on Infant and Young Children Pulmonary Function Testing. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2007; 15;175(12):1304-45.

Castile R. Novel techniques for assessing infant and pediatric lung function and structure. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2004; 23(11 Suppl):S246-53.

Miller MR, Crapo R, Hankinson J, et al for ATS/ERS Task Force. General considerations for lung function testing. Eur Respir J. 2005 Jul;26(1):153-61.


AAP Task Force on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: The changing concept of sudden infant death syndrome: diagnostic coding shifts, controversies regarding the sleeping environment, and new variables to consider in reducing risk. Pediatrics 2005;116:1245-1255.

Clinical practice guideline: diagnosis and management of childhood obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Pediatrics 2002;109(4):704-12.

Capdevila OS, Kheirandish-Gozal L, Dayyat E, Gozal D. Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea: complications, management, and long-term outcomes. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2008 15;5(2):274-82.

Gozal D, Kheirandish-Gozal L. Sleep apnea in children–treatment considerations. Paediatr Respir Rev. 2006; 7 Suppl 1:S58-61.

Halbower AC, Ishman SL, McGinley BM. Childhood obstructive sleep-disordered breathing: a clinical update and discussion of technological innovations and challenges. Chest 2007; 132(6):2030-41

Katz ES, D’Ambrosio CM. Pathophysiology of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2008 Feb 15;5(2):253-62.

Lumeng JC, Chervin RD. Epidemiology of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2008 Feb 15;5(2):242-52.

Moore M, Allison D, Rosen CL. A review of pediatric nonrespiratory sleep disorders. Chest 2006; 130(4):1252-62.

Shine NP, Lannigan FJ, Coates HL, Wilson A. Adenotonsillectomy for obstructive sleep apnea in obese children: effects on respiratory parameters and clinical outcome. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2006;132(10):1123-7.

Tamay Z, Akcay A, Kilic G, Suleyman A, Ones U, Guler N. Are physicians aware of obstructive sleep apnea in children? Sleep Med 2006;7(7):580-4.

Tarasiuk A, Greenberg-Dotan S, Simon-Tuval T, et al. Elevated morbidity and health care use in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2007;175(1):55-61.

Tauman R, Gozal D. Obesity and obstructive sleep apnea in children. Paediatr Respir Rev 2006; 7(4):247-59.


Berry JG, Graham DA, Graham RJ. Predictors of clinical outcomes and hospital resource use of children after tracheostomy. Pediatrics 2009; 124:563-72.

Carron JD, Derkay CS, Strope GL, Nosonchuk JE, Darrow DH. Pediatric tracheotomies: changing indications and outcomes. Laryngoscope 2000;110(7):1099-104.

Graf JM, Montagnino BA, Hueckel R, McPherson ML. Children with new tracheostomies: Planning for family education and common impediments to discharge. Pediatric Pulmonology 2008; 43:788-94

Kremer B, Botos-Kremer AI, Eckel HE, Schlondorff G. Indications, complications, and surgical techniques for pediatric tracheostomies–an update. J Pediatr Surg 2002; 37(11): 1556-62.

Sherman JM, Davis S, Albamonte-Petrick S, et al. Care of the child with a chronic tracheostomy. ATS Official Statement, July 1999. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000;161(1):297-308.

Trachsel D, Hammer J. Indications for tracheostomy in children. Paediatr Respir Rev 2006; 7(3):162-8.