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COVID-19 Clinical Resources

Saucier JR. Arachnid envenomation. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2004May;22(2):405-22, ix. Review. PubMed PMID: 15163574.

Feng, Sing-yi, et al. Bites and Stings—Snakes, Spiders, and Scorpions in the United States.” Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice5 (2007): 1-22.

Swanson DL, Vetter RS. Bites of brown recluse spiders and suspected necrotic arachnidism. N Engl J Med. 2005 Feb 17;352(7):700-7. Review. PubMed PMID: 15716564.

Rempe, Brian, et al. “Evidence-based management of mammalian bite wounds.” Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice9 (2009): 1-17.

Feng, Sing-yi, et al. “Hymenopteraenvenomation: Bees, Wasps, And Ants.” Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice6 (2008): 1-18.

Clark RF, Girard RH, Rao D, Ly BT, Davis DP. Stingray envenomation: a retrospective review of clinical presentation and treatment in 119 cases. J Emerg Med. 2007 Jul;33(1):33-7. Epub 2007 May 30. PubMed PMID: 17630073.

Lavonas EJ, Ruha AM, Banner W, et al.; Rocky Mountain Poison and Drug Center, Denver Health and Hospital Authority. Unified treatment algorithm for the management of crotaline snakebite in the United States: results of an evidence-informed consensus workshop. BMC Emerg Med. 2011 Feb 3;11:2. doi: 10.1186/1471-227X-11-2. PubMed PMID: 21291549; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3042971.

Braswell AL, Palmer WM, Beane JC. Venomous Snakes of North Carolina. NC State Museum of Natural Sciences, Raleigh, NC.