Schmitt ER, Gausche-hill M, Leuthauser A, Witt M. Diagnosing and Managing Ovarian and Adnexal Torsion in Children. Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice. 2012 Jul;9(7):1-15.
Dart R. First-trimester emergencies: a practical approach to abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding in early pregnancy. Emergency Medicine Practice+ Em Practice Guidelines Update. 2003 Nov;5(11):1-18.