Schizophrenia (SCZ)

Workgroup Chairs: Michael O’Donovan and James Walters

SCZ Data Access Portal

The Schizophrenia workgroup has been a part of the PGC since 2007. During that time, our membership has grown to include over 400 investigators from more than 100 institutions representing 40 countries.

Professor Michael O’Donovan chairs our group. Our interdisciplinary membership includes graduate and postdoctoral trainees in psychiatric genetics as well as distinguished faculty with a wide range of expertise including human genetics, psychiatry, biostatistics, bioinformatics, psychology, cognitive neuroscience, cellular modelling and drug discovery. Working together we have studied the DNA of over 38,000 individuals with schizophrenia. This has allowed us to conduct very large genome-wide association studies (GWAS), which in turn has identified large numbers of common DNA variants associated with increased risk for schizophrenia (over 140), including unpublished data-PMID: 25056061, and PMID: 21926974). We have, with colleagues in the Copy Number Variant analysis group, conducted one of the largest analyses of rare copy number variation and identified novel loci that are associated with schizophrenia (PMID: 27869829). Our group has worked with the Cross-Disorder group to define the degree of genetic overlap between major psychiatric disorders (PMID: 23933821PMID: 23453885), we have also worked with the Network and Pathways analysis group to identify biological processes likely to mediate the impact of genetic variation on schizophrenia (PMID: 26007216) – including synaptic function, chromatin remodelling and immune processes.

Our current goals are to expand our samples to include at least 100,000 people with schizophrenia, and to enhance the ancestral diversity of those samples in order to capture more of the common and rare genetic variation that impact on risk of the disorder. This will allow us to carry out work aimed at further establishing the pathophysiological process underlying schizophrenia. These samples will be used to help develop algorithms aimed at predicting important clinical outcomes, for example, treatment resistance. We aim to stratify those with schizophrenia, potentially with the addition of those with other psychiatric disorders, into subgroups that may be relatively aetiologically homogeneous. From this, we may be able to identify patient strata who have different therapeutic needs.

Members of the workgroup stay connected through regular conference calls (the frequency of which depends on need), regular email contact on a list serve, and via a Google group.

If you think you are able to contribute to our workgroup, please contact Mick O’Donovan (chair of the group) at odonovanmc@cardiff.ac.uk. In your email, please use the title ‘Membership of SZ group of the PGC’. For existing members of the group who wish to propose secondary analysis, please email Catherine Hortop (hortopcs@cardiff.ac.uk). For authorship guidelines, please read our publication policy.

Select Publications

Holland D, Wang Y, Thompson WK, Schork A, Chen CH, Lo MT, Witoelar A; Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium; Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta Analysis Consortium, Werge T, O’Donovan M, Andreassen OA, Dale AM. Estimating Effect Sizes and Expected Replication Probabilities from GWAS Summary Statistics. Front Genet. 2016 Feb 16;7:15. http://doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2016.00015.

Franke B, Stein JL, Ripke S, Anttila V, Hibar DP, van Hulzen KJ, Arias-Vasquez A, Smoller JW, Nichols TE, Neale MC, McIntosh AM, Lee P, McMahon FJ, Meyer-Lindenberg A, Mattheisen M, Andreassen OA, Gruber O, Sachdev PS, Roiz-Santiañez R, Saykin AJ, Ehrlich S, Mather KA, Turner JA, Schwarz E, Thalamuthu A, Yao Y, Ho YY, Martin NG, Wright MJ; Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium; Psychosis Endophenotypes International Consortium; Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 2; Enigma Consortium, O’Donovan MC, Thompson PM, Neale BM, Medland SE, Sullivan PF. Genetic influences on schizophrenia and subcortical brain volumes: large-scale proof of concept. Nat Neurosci. 2016 Mar;19(3):420-31. http://doi.org/10.1038/nn.4228.

Sekar A, Bialas AR, de Rivera H, Davis A, Hammond TR, Kamitaki N, Tooley K, Presumey J, Baum M, Van Doren V, Genovese G, Rose SA, Handsaker RE; Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, Daly MJ, Carroll MC, Stevens B, McCarroll SA. Schizophrenia risk from complex variation of complement component 4. Nature. 2016 Feb 11;530(7589):177-83. http://doi.org/10.1038/nature16549.

Wang Y, Thompson WK, Schork AJ, Holland D, Chen CH, Bettella F, Desikan RS, Li W, Witoelar A, Zuber V, Devor A; Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium; Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta Analysis Consortium, Nöthen MM, Rietschel M, Chen Q, Werge T, Cichon S, Weinberger DR, Djurovic S, O’Donovan M, Visscher PM, Andreassen OA, Dale AM. Leveraging Genomic Annotations and Pleiotropic Enrichment for Improved Replication Rates in Schizophrenia GWAS. PLoS Genet. 2016 Jan 25;12(1):e1005803. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005803.

Pers TH, Timshel P, Ripke S, Lent S, Sullivan PF, O’Donovan MC, Franke L, Hirschhorn JN; Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. Comprehensive analysis of schizophrenia-associated loci highlights ion channel pathways and biologically plausible candidate causal genes. Hum Mol Genet. 2016 Mar 15;25(6):1247-54. http://doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddw007.

Bigdeli TB, Ripke S, Bacanu SA, Lee SH, Wray NR, Gejman PV, Rietschel M, Cichon S, St Clair D, Corvin A, Kirov G, McQuillin A, Gurling H, Rujescu D, Andreassen OA, Werge T, Blackwood DH, Pato CN, Pato MT, Malhotra AK, O’Donovan MC, Kendler KS, Fanous AH; Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. Genome-wide association study reveals greater polygenic loading for schizophrenia in cases with a family history of illness. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2016 Mar;171(2):276-89. http://doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.b.32402.

Andreassen OA, Thompson WK, Schork AJ, Ripke S, Mattingsdal M, Kelsoe JR, Kendler KS, O’Donovan MC, Rujescu D, Werge T, Sklar P; Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC); Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia Working Groups, Roddey JC, Chen CH, McEvoy L, Desikan RS, Djurovic S, Dale AM. Correction: Improved Detection of Common Variants Associated with Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder Using Pleiotropy-Informed Conditional False Discovery Rate. PLoS Genet. 2015 Nov 5;11(11):e1005544. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005544.

Loh PR, Bhatia G, Gusev A, Finucane HK, Bulik-Sullivan BK, Pollack SJ; Schizophrenia Working Group of Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, de Candia TR, Lee SH, Wray NR, Kendler KS, O’Donovan MC, Neale BM, Patterson N, Price AL. Contrasting genetic architectures of schizophrenia and other complex diseases using fast variance-components analysis. Nat Genet. 2015 Dec;47(12):1385-92. http://doi.org/10.1038/ng.3431.

Ingason A, Giegling I, Hartmann AM, Genius J, Konte B, Friedl M; Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC), Ripke S, Sullivan PF, St Clair D, Collier DA, O’Donovan MC, Mirnics K, Rujescu D. Expression analysis in a rat psychosis model identifies novel candidate genes validated in a large case-control sample of schizophrenia. Transl Psychiatry. 2015 Oct 13;5:e656. http://doi.org/10.1038/tp.2015.151.

Vilhjálmsson BJ, Yang J, Finucane HK, Gusev A, Lindström S, Ripke S, Genovese G, Loh PR, Bhatia G, Do R, Hayeck T, Won HH; Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, Discovery, Biology, and Risk of Inherited Variants in Breast Cancer (DRIVE) study, Kathiresan S, Pato M, Pato C, Tamimi R, Stahl E, Zaitlen N, Pasaniuc B, Belbin G, Kenny EE, Schierup MH, De Jager P, Patsopoulos NA, McCarroll S, Daly M, Purcell S, Chasman D, Neale B, Goddard M, Visscher PM, Kraft P, Patterson N, Price AL. Modeling Linkage Disequilibrium Increases Accuracy of Polygenic Risk Scores. Am J Hum Genet. 2015 Oct 1;97(4):576-92. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2015.09.001.

Finucane HK, Bulik-Sullivan B, Gusev A, Trynka G, Reshef Y, Loh PR, Anttila V, Xu H, Zang C, Farh K, Ripke S, Day FR; ReproGen Consortium; Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium; RACI Consortium, Purcell S, Stahl E, Lindstrom S, Perry JR, Okada Y, Raychaudhuri S, Daly MJ, Patterson N, Neale BM, Price AL. Partitioning heritability by functional annotation using genome-wide association summary statistics. Nat Genet. 2015 Nov;47(11):1228-35. http://doi.org/10.1038/ng.3404.

Bulik-Sullivan B, Finucane HK, Anttila V, Gusev A, Day FR, Loh PR; ReproGen Consortium; Psychiatric Genomics Consortium; Genetic Consortium for Anorexia Nervosa of the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 3, Duncan L, Perry JR, Patterson N, Robinson EB, Daly MJ, Price AL, Neale BM. An atlas of genetic correlations across human diseases and traits. Nat Genet. 2015 Nov;47(11):1236-41. http://doi.org/10.1038/ng.3406.

Lee SH, Byrne EM, Hultman CM, Kähler A, Vinkhuyzen AA, Ripke S, Andreassen OA, Frisell T, Gusev A, Hu X, Karlsson R, Mantzioris VX, McGrath JJ, Mehta D, Stahl EA, Zhao Q, Kendler KS, Sullivan PF, Price AL, O’Donovan M, Okada Y, Mowry BJ, Raychaudhuri S, Wray NR; Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium and Rheumatoid Arthritis Consortium International; Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Authors, Byerley W, Cahn W, Cantor RM, Cichon S, Cormican P, Curtis D, Djurovic S, Escott-Price V, Gejman PV, Georgieva L, Giegling I, Hansen TF, Ingason A, Kim Y, Konte B, Lee PH, McIntosh A, McQuillin A, Morris DW, Nöthen MM, O’Dushlaine C, Olincy A, Olsen L, Pato CN, Pato MT, Pickard BS, Posthuma D, Rasmussen HB, Rietschel M, Rujescu D, Schulze TG, Silverman JM, Thirumalai S, Werge T; Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Collaborators, Agartz I, Amin F, Azevedo MH, Bass N, Black DW, Blackwood DH, Bruggeman R, Buccola NG, Choudhury K, Cloninger RC, Corvin A, Craddock N, Daly MJ, Datta S, Donohoe GJ, Duan J, Dudbridge F, Fanous A, Freedman R, Freimer NB, Friedl M, Gill M, Gurling H, De Haan L, Hamshere ML, Hartmann AM, Holmans PA, Kahn RS, Keller MC, Kenny E, Kirov GK, Krabbendam L, Krasucki R, Lawrence J, Lencz T, Levinson DF, Lieberman JA, Lin DY, Linszen DH, Magnusson PK, Maier W, Malhotra AK, Mattheisen M, Mattingsdal M, McCarroll SA, Medeiros H, Melle I, Milanova V, Myin-Germeys I, Neale BM, Ophoff RA, Owen MJ, Pimm J, Purcell SM, Puri V, Quested DJ, Rossin L, Ruderfer D, Sanders AR, Shi J, Sklar P, St Clair D, Stroup TS, Van Os J, Visscher PM, Wiersma D, Zammit S; Rheumatoid Arthritis Consortium International Authors, Bridges SL Jr, Choi HK, Coenen MJ, de Vries N, Dieud P, Greenberg JD, Huizinga TW, Padyukov L, Siminovitch KA, Tak PP, Worthington J; Rheumatoid Arthritis Consortium International Collaborators, De Jager PL, Denny JC, Gregersen PK, Klareskog L, Mariette X, Plenge RM, van Laar M, van Riel P. New data and an old puzzle: the negative association between schizophrenia and rheumatoid arthritis. Int J Epidemiol. 2015 Oct;44(5):1706-21. PubMed PMID: 26286434.

Bulik-Sullivan BK, Loh PR, Finucane HK, Ripke S, Yang J; Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, Patterson N, Daly MJ, Price AL, Neale BM. LD Score regression distinguishes confounding from polygenicity in genome-wide association studies. Nat Genet. 2015 Mar;47(3):291-5. http://doi.org/10.1038/ng.3211.

Maier R, Moser G, Chen GB, Ripke S; Cross-Disorder Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, Coryell W, Potash JB, Scheftner WA, Shi J, Weissman MM, Hultman CM, Landén M, Levinson DF, Kendler KS, Smoller JW, Wray NR, Lee SH. Joint analysis of psychiatric disorders increases accuracy of risk prediction for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder. Am J Hum Genet. 2015 Feb 5;96(2):283-94. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2014.12.006.

Gusev A, Lee SH, Trynka G, Finucane H, Vilhjálmsson BJ, Xu H, Zang C, Ripke S, Bulik-Sullivan B, Stahl E; Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium; SWE-SCZ Consortium, Kähler AK, Hultman CM, Purcell SM, McCarroll SA, Daly M, Pasaniuc B, Sullivan PF, Neale BM, Wray NR, Raychaudhuri S, Price AL; Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium; SWE-SCZ Consortium. Partitioning heritability of regulatory and cell-type-specific variants across 11 common diseases. Am J Hum Genet. 2014 Nov 6;95(5):535-52. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2014.10.004.

Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. Biological insights from 108 schizophrenia-associated genetic loci. Nature. 2014 Jul 24;511(7510):421-7. http://doi.org/10.1038/nature13595.

Chan Y, Lim ET, Sandholm N, Wang SR, McKnight AJ, Ripke S; DIAGRAM Consortium; GENIE Consortium; GIANT Consortium; IIBDGC Consortium; PGC Consortium, Daly MJ, Neale BM, Salem RM, Hirschhorn JN. An excess of risk-increasing low-frequency variants can be a signal of polygenic inheritance in complex diseases. Am J Hum Genet. 2014 Mar 6;94(3):437-52. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2014.02.006.

Andreassen OA, Harbo HF, Wang Y, Thompson WK, Schork AJ, Mattingsdal M, Zuber V, Bettella F, Ripke S, Kelsoe JR, Kendler KS, O’Donovan MC, Sklar P; Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia Work Groups; International Multiple Sclerosis Genetics Consortium (IMSGC), McEvoy LK, Desikan RS, Lie BA, Djurovic S, Dale AM. Genetic pleiotropy between multiple sclerosis and schizophrenia but not bipolar disorder: differential involvement of immune-related gene loci. Mol Psychiatry. 2015 Feb;20(2):207-14. http://doi.org/10.1038/mp.2013.195.

Hargreaves A, Anney R, O’Dushlaine C, Nicodemus KK; Schizophrenia Psychiatric Genome-Wide Association Study Consortium (PGC-SCZ); Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 2, Gill M, Corvin A, Morris D, Donohoe G. The one and the many: effects of the cell adhesion molecule pathway on neuropsychological function in psychosis.Psychol Med. 2014 Jul;44(10):2177-87. http://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291713002663.

Ruderfer DM, Fanous AH, Ripke S, McQuillin A, Amdur RL; Schizophrenia Working Group of Psychiatric Genomics Consortium; Bipolar Disorder Working Group of Psychiatric Genomics Consortium; Cross-Disorder Working Group of Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, Gejman PV, O’Donovan MC, Andreassen OA, Djurovic S, Hultman CM, Kelsoe JR, Jamain S, Landén M, Leboyer M, Nimgaonkar V, Nurnberger J, Smoller JW, Craddock N, Corvin A, Sullivan PF, Holmans P, Sklar P, Kendler KS. Polygenic dissection of diagnosis and clinical dimensions of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Mol Psychiatry. 2014 Sep;19(9):1017-24. http://doi.org/10.1038/mp.2013.138.

Cross-Disorder Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, Lee SH, Ripke S, Neale BM, Faraone SV, Purcell SM, Perlis RH, Mowry BJ, Thapar A, Goddard ME, Witte JS, Absher D, Agartz I, Akil H, Amin F, Andreassen OA, Anjorin A, Anney R, Anttila V, Arking DE, Asherson P, Azevedo MH, Backlund L, Badner JA, Bailey AJ, Banaschewski T, Barchas JD, Barnes MR, Barrett TB, Bass N, Battaglia A, Bauer M, Bayés M, Bellivier F, Bergen SE, Berrettini W, Betancur C, Bettecken T, Biederman J, Binder EB, Black DW, Blackwood DH, Bloss CS, Boehnke M, Boomsma DI, Breen G, Breuer R, Bruggeman R, Cormican P, Buccola NG, Buitelaar JK, Bunney WE, Buxbaum JD, Byerley WF, Byrne EM, Caesar S, Cahn W, Cantor RM, Casas M, Chakravarti A, Chambert K, Choudhury K, Cichon S, Cloninger CR, Collier DA, Cook EH, Coon H, Cormand B, Corvin A, Coryell WH, Craig DW, Craig IW, Crosbie J, Cuccaro ML, Curtis D, Czamara D, Datta S, Dawson G, Day R, De Geus EJ, Degenhardt F, Djurovic S, Donohoe GJ, Doyle AE, Duan J, Dudbridge F, Duketis E, Ebstein RP, Edenberg HJ, Elia J, Ennis S, Etain B, Fanous A, Farmer AE, Ferrier IN, Flickinger M, Fombonne E, Foroud T, Frank J, Franke B, Fraser C, Freedman R, Freimer NB, Freitag CM, Friedl M, Frisén L, Gallagher L, Gejman PV, Georgieva L, Gershon ES, Geschwind DH, Giegling I, Gill M, Gordon SD, Gordon-Smith K, Green EK, Greenwood TA, Grice DE, Gross M, Grozeva D, Guan W, Gurling H, De Haan L, Haines JL, Hakonarson H, Hallmayer J, Hamilton SP, Hamshere ML, Hansen TF, Hartmann AM, Hautzinger M, Heath AC, Henders AK, Herms S, Hickie IB, Hipolito M, Hoefels S, Holmans PA, Holsboer F, Hoogendijk WJ, Hottenga JJ, Hultman CM, Hus V, Ingason A, Ising M, Jamain S, Jones EG, Jones I, Jones L, Tzeng JY, Kähler AK, Kahn RS, Kandaswamy R, Keller MC, Kennedy JL, Kenny E, Kent L, Kim Y, Kirov GK, Klauck SM, Klei L, Knowles JA, Kohli MA, Koller DL, Konte B, Korszun A, Krabbendam L, Krasucki R, Kuntsi J, Kwan P, Landén M, Långström N, Lathrop M, Lawrence J, Lawson WB, Leboyer M, Ledbetter DH, Lee PH, Lencz T, Lesch KP, Levinson DF, Lewis CM, Li J, Lichtenstein P, Lieberman JA, Lin DY, Linszen DH, Liu C, Lohoff FW, Loo SK, Lord C, Lowe JK, Lucae S, MacIntyre DJ, Madden PA, Maestrini E, Magnusson PK, Mahon PB, Maier W, Malhotra AK, Mane SM, Martin CL, Martin NG, Mattheisen M, Matthews K, Mattingsdal M, McCarroll SA, McGhee KA, McGough JJ, McGrath PJ, McGuffin P, McInnis MG, McIntosh A, McKinney R, McLean AW, McMahon FJ, McMahon WM, McQuillin A, Medeiros H, Medland SE, Meier S, Melle I, Meng F, Meyer J, Middeldorp CM, Middleton L, Milanova V, Miranda A, Monaco AP, Montgomery GW, Moran JL, Moreno-De-Luca D, Morken G, Morris DW, Morrow EM, Moskvina V, Muglia P, Mühleisen TW, Muir WJ, Müller-Myhsok B, Murtha M, Myers RM, Myin-Germeys I, Neale MC, Nelson SF, Nievergelt CM, Nikolov I, Nimgaonkar V, Nolen WA, Nöthen MM, Nurnberger JI, Nwulia EA, Nyholt DR, O’Dushlaine C, Oades RD, Olincy A, Oliveira G, Olsen L, Ophoff RA, Osby U, Owen MJ, Palotie A, Parr JR, Paterson AD, Pato CN, Pato MT, Penninx BW, Pergadia ML, Pericak-Vance MA, Pickard BS, Pimm J, Piven J, Posthuma D, Potash JB, Poustka F, Propping P, Puri V, Quested DJ, Quinn EM, Ramos-Quiroga JA, Rasmussen HB, Raychaudhuri S, Rehnström K, Reif A, Ribasés M, Rice JP, Rietschel M, Roeder K, Roeyers H, Rossin L, Rothenberger A, Rouleau G, Ruderfer D, Rujescu D, Sanders AR, Sanders SJ, Santangelo SL, Sergeant JA, Schachar R, Schalling M, Schatzberg AF, Scheftner WA, Schellenberg GD, Scherer SW, Schork NJ, Schulze TG, Schumacher J, Schwarz M, Scolnick E, Scott LJ, Shi J, Shilling PD, Shyn SI, Silverman JM, Slager SL, Smalley SL, Smit JH, Smith EN, Sonuga-Barke EJ, St Clair D, State M, Steffens M, Steinhausen HC, Strauss JS, Strohmaier J, Stroup TS, Sutcliffe JS, Szatmari P, Szelinger S, Thirumalai S, Thompson RC, Todorov AA, Tozzi F, Treutlein J, Uhr M, van den Oord EJ, Van Grootheest G, Van Os J, Vicente AM, Vieland VJ, Vincent JB, Visscher PM, Walsh CA, Wassink TH, Watson SJ, Weissman MM, Werge T, Wienker TF, Wijsman EM, Willemsen G, Williams N, Willsey AJ, Witt SH, Xu W, Young AH, Yu TW, Zammit S, Zandi PP, Zhang P, Zitman FG, Zöllner S, Devlin B, Kelsoe JR, Sklar P, Daly MJ, O’Donovan MC, Craddock N, Sullivan PF, Smoller JW, Kendler KS, Wray NR; International Inflammatory Bowel Disease Genetics Consortium (IIBDGC). Genetic relationship between five psychiatric disorders estimated from genome-wide SNPs. Nat Genet. 2013 Sep;45(9):984-94. http://doi.org/10.1038/ng.2711.

Andreassen OA, Thompson WK, Schork AJ, Ripke S, Mattingsdal M, Kelsoe JR, Kendler KS, O’Donovan MC, Rujescu D, Werge T, Sklar P; Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC); Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia Working Groups, Roddey JC, Chen CH, McEvoy L, Desikan RS, Djurovic S, Dale AM. Improved detection of common variants associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder using pleiotropy-informed conditional false discovery rate. PLoS Genet. 2013 Apr;9(4):e1003455. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003455.

Schork AJ, Thompson WK, Pham P, Torkamani A, Roddey JC, Sullivan PF, Kelsoe JR, O’Donovan MC, Furberg H; Tobacco and Genetics Consortium; Bipolar Disorder Psychiatric Genomics Consortium; Schizophrenia Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, Schork NJ, Andreassen OA, Dale AM. All SNPs are not created equal: genome-wide association studies reveal a consistent pattern of enrichment among functionally annotated SNPs. PLoS Genet. 2013 Apr;9(4):e1003449. http://doi.org10.1371/journal.pgen.1003449.

Andreassen OA, Djurovic S, Thompson WK, Schork AJ, Kendler KS, O’Donovan MC, Rujescu D, Werge T, van de Bunt M, Morris AP, McCarthy MI; International Consortium for Blood Pressure GWAS; Diabetes Genetics Replication and Meta-analysis Consortium; Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Schizophrenia Working Group, Roddey JC, McEvoy LK, Desikan RS, Dale AM. Improved detection of common variants associated with schizophrenia by leveraging pleiotropy with cardiovascular-disease risk factors. Am J Hum Genet. 2013 Feb 7; 92(2):197-209. http://doi.org10.1016/j.ajhg.2013.01.001.

Levinson DF, Shi J, Wang K, Oh S, Riley B, Pulver AE, Wildenauer DB, Laurent C, Mowry BJ, Gejman PV, Owen MJ, Kendler KS, Nestadt G, Schwab SG, Mallet J, Nertney D, Sanders AR, Williams NM, Wormley B, Lasseter VK, Albus M, Godard-Bauché S, Alexander M, Duan J, O’Donovan MC, Walsh D, O’Neill A, Papadimitriou GN, Dikeos D, Maier W, Lerer B, Campion D, Cohen D, Jay M, Fanous A, Eichhammer P, Silverman JM, Norton N, Zhang N, Hakonarson H, Gao C, Citri A, Hansen M, Ripke S; Schizophrenia Psychiatric GWAS Consortium, Dudbridge F, Holmans PA. Genome-wide association study of multiplex schizophrenia pedigrees. Am J Psychiatry. 2012 Sep;169(9):963-73. PubMed PMID: 22885689.

Hamshere ML, Walters JT, Smith R, Richards AL, Green E, Grozeva D, Jones I, Forty L, Jones L, Gordon-Smith K, Riley B, O’Neill FA, Kendler KS, Sklar P, Purcell S, Kranz J; Schizophrenia Psychiatric Genome-wide Association Study Consortium; Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium+; Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 2, Morris D, Gill M, Holmans P, Craddock N, Corvin A, Owen MJ, O’Donovan MC. Genome-wide significant associations in schizophrenia to ITIH3/4,CACNA1C and SDCCAG8, and extensive replication of associations reported by the Schizophrenia PGC. Mol Psychiatry. 2013 Jun; 18(6):708-12. http://doi.org/10.1038/mp.2012.67.

Lee SH, DeCandia TR, Ripke S, Yang J; Schizophrenia Psychiatric Genome-Wide Association Study Consortium (PGC-SCZ); International Schizophrenia Consortium (ISC); Molecular Genetics of Schizophrenia Collaboration (MGS), Sullivan PF, Goddard ME, Keller MC, Visscher PM, Wray NR. Estimating the proportion of variation in susceptibility to schizophrenia captured by common SNPs. Nat Genet. 2012 Feb 19; 44(3):247-50. http://doi.org/10.1038/ng.1108.

Schizophrenia Psychiatric Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) Consortium.Genome-wide association study identifies five new schizophrenia loci. Nat Genet. 2011 Sep 18; 43(10):969-76. http://doi.org/10.1038/ng.940.

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