The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill has developed this product using professional and scientific methods, sources, and up-to-date clinical standards at the time of publication to confirm that the information contained in it is both reliable and valid. However, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and AHRQ caution that the product is to be utilized using the professional judgment of authorized physicians or nurses and staff directed and supervised by them. Each health care professional who decides to use this product or its content should understand that such use would be on the basis of that provider’s professional judgment with respect to the needs and characteristics of the particular patients they are caring for. The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and AHRQ disclaim any and all liability for adverse consequences or for damages that may arise out of or be related to the professional use or application by practitioners of the product or its content, including but not limited to, indirect, special, incidental, exemplary, or consequential damages. Furthermore, practitioners should be cautioned that professional and scientific methods and standards evolve over time. Therefore, attention should be given to possible progress in medical standards, techniques, and technology occurring after the production of this material.

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