The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill is one of the four medical centers in North Carolina that can offer a Pediatric Urologic Services specialty. This practice in the Department of Urology is devoted solely to the management of children with both simple and complex urological problems, including vesicoureteral reflux, hydronephrosis, undescended testicles, hernias, hydroceles, and genital reconstruction for problems such as hypospadias or ambiguous genitalia. Endoscopic and laparoscopic equipment is used in the evaluation and treatment of patients from newborn to adult. State-of-the-art laparoscopic procedures for pyeloplasty and genital reconstruction minimize morbidity and subsequently decrease hospital stay. Further speciality in managing rare congenital problems such as female pseudoherrnaphroditism, prune belly syndrome, bladder exstrophy, and urethral valves is available.