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Sandra C. Bishop–Freeman, PhD, F-ABFT

Deputy Chief Toxicologist, N.C. Office of the Chief Medical Examiner

Research Interests

Forensic Toxicology is a multifaceted discipline that bridges the gap between the scientific and legal aspects of analytical drug chemistry and pharmacology. My interests include topics from both human performance and postmortem toxicology; specifically, examining the impairing effects of drugs and alcohol on driving as well as exploring analytical issues surrounding drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA). Recently, I have been compiling data comparing incidental postmortem concentrations to lethal concentrations. This provides interpretation guidance to toxicologists and pathologists when rendering an opinion regarding the contributions of drugs to a death.

Selected Publications

Bishop-Freeman, S.C.; Fox, L.; Winecker, R.E.; Hudson, J.S. Death from Poppy Tea Consumption. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 44, 7 (2020) 734-740. 10.1093/jat/bkaa093

Bishop-Freeman, S.C.; Bertholf, R; Mayhew, L.; Winecker, R.E. False-Positive Enzymatic Alcohol Results in Perimortem Specimens. Laboratory Medicine. (2020) 10.1093/labmed/lmz082.

Bishop-Freeman, S.C.; Skirnick, O.; Eagerton, D.; Winecker, R.E. Effects of Bariatric Surgery in Postmortem Casework. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 43, 8 (2019) 651-9.

Bishop-Freeman, S.C.; Hensel, E.M.; Feaster, M.S.; Winecker, R.E. Degradation of Bupropion: Implications for Interpretation of Postmortem Case Data. Journal of Analytical Toxicology. 42, 8 (2018) 525-536.

Bishop-Freeman, S.C.; Shonsey, E.M.; Friederich, L.W.; Beuhler, M.C.; Winecker, R.E. Benzonatate Toxicity: Nothing to Cough At. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 41, 5 (2017) 461-463.

Bishop-Freeman, S.C.; Feaster, M.S.; Miller, A.; Beal, J.L.; Hargrove, R.; Brower, J.O.; Winecker, R.E. Loperamide-Related Deaths in North Carolina. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 40, 8 (2016) 677-686.

Bishop-Freeman, S.C.; Miller, A.; Hensel, E.M.; Winecker, R.E. Postmortem Metaxalone (Skelaxin®) Data from North Carolina. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 39 (2015) 629–636.

Bishop-Freeman, S.C.; Kornegay, N.C.; Winecker, R.E. Postmortem Levetiracetam (Keppra®) Data from North Carolina. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 36 (2012) 422–428.

Bishop, S.C; Johnson, G.; Smith, L.; Fiorentino, D. Manual versus automatic sampling variations of a Preliminary Alcohol Screening device (PAS), Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 33, 8 (2009) 521–524.

Bishop, S.C.; Lerch, M.; McCord, B. Detection of nitrated benzodiazepines by indirect laser-induced fluorescence detection on a microfluidics device, J Chromatogr. A, 1154, 1-2 (2007) 481–484.

Bishop, S.C.; McCord, B.; Gratz, S.; Loelger, J.; Witkowski, M. Simultaneous detection of piperazine and amphetamine-like designer drugs using cyclodextrin mediated capillary electrophoresis, Journal of Forensic Sciences, 50, 2 (2005) 326–335.

Bishop, S.C.; Lerch, M.; McCord, B. Micellar electrokinetic screening method for common sexual assault drugs in beverages, Forensic Science International, 141 (2004) 7–15.

Sandra C. Bishop–Freeman, PhD, F-ABFT