Association between breastfeeding, host genetic factors, and calicivirus gastroenteritis in a Nicaraguan birth cohort
Vielot NA, François R, Huseynova E, González F, Reyes Y, Gutierrez L, Nordgren J, Toval-Ruiz C, Vilchez S, Vinjé J, Becker-Dreps S, Bucardo F.
Background: Norovirus and sapovirus are important causes of childhood acute gastroenteritis (AGE). Breastfeeding prevents AGE generally; however, it is unknown if breastfeeding prevents AGE caused specifically by norovirus and sapovirus. Methods: We investigated the association between breastfeeding and norovirus or sapovirus AGE episodes in a birth cohort. Weekly data on breastfeeding and AGE episodes were captured during the first year of life. Stools were collected from children with AGE and tested by RT-qPCR for norovirus and sapovirus. Time-dependent Cox models estimated associations between weekly breastfeeding and time to first norovirus or sapovirus AGE. Findings: From June 2017 to July 2018, 444 newborns were enrolled in the study. In the first year of life, 69 and 34 children experienced a norovirus and a sapovirus episode, respectively. Exclusive breastfeeding lasted a median of 2 weeks, and any breastfeeding lasted a median of 43 weeks. Breastfeeding in the last week did not prevent norovirus (HR: 1.09, 95% CI: 0.62, 1.92) or sapovirus (HR: 1.00, 95% CI: 0.82, 1.21) AGE in a given week, adjusting for household sanitation, consumption of high-risk foods, and mother’s and child’s histo-blood group phenotypes. Maternal secretor-positive phenotype was protective against norovirus AGE, whereas child’s secretor-positive phenotype was a risk factor for norovirus AGE. Interpretation: Exclusive breastfeeding in this population was short-lived, and no conclusions could be drawn about its potential to prevent norovirus or sapovirus AGE. Non-exclusive breastfeeding did not prevent norovirus or sapovirus AGE in the first year of life. However, maternal secretor-positive phenotype was associated with a reduced hazard of norovirus AGE.
Vielot NA, François R, Huseynova E, González F, Reyes Y, Gutierrez L, Nordgren J, Toval-Ruiz C, Vilchez S, Vinjé J, Becker-Dreps S, Bucardo F. Association between breastfeeding, host genetic factors, and calicivirus gastroenteritis in a Nicaraguan birth cohort. PLoS One. 2022 Oct 14;17(10):e0267689. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0267689. PMID: 36240197; PMCID: PMC9565698.