Hematuria, or blood in the urine, is commonly encountered in clinical practice, with over 2 million American patients referred to urologists annually. The association of this finding with occult urinary tract cancer led to the development of several guidelines, with differing recommendations for evaluation. A study led by investigators at UNC published in this week’s print edition of JAMA Internal Medicine explores the tradeoffs of these different approaches. Matthew Nielsen, Associate Professor of Urology and Adjunct Associate Professor of Epidemiology and Health Policy & Management, was the corresponding author for the study. Other UNC-affiliated investigators include Mihaela Georgieva, Stephanie Wheeler, and Daniel Erim, from the Department of Health Policy and Management, and Mathew Raynor from the Department of Urology.